Cargo contents Contents are what is stated on the bill of lading.
May involve direct (opening the container) or remote (scanning or probing) inspection.
Cargo integrity Contents remain unchanged from origin to destination.
Detect unauthorized access to the cargo.
Any change monitored and recorded (locks, alarms or probes).
Route integrity No deviation from the scheduled route.
Cargo remains within secure modes and locations (terminals and distribution centers).
Information integrity Authenticated and verifiable information about cargo.
Source: adapted from M. van de Voort and A. Rahman (2004) "Securing Global Supply Chains", Port Technology International, 24th Edition, pp. 67-70.
Supply Chain Security Dimensions
An emerging paradigm in managing the security of transport systems involves the whole supply chain. The main dimensions concern:
  • Cargo contents. Insuring that the cargo is what is stated on the bill of lading. Inspections by custom agencies are commonly undertaken with a variety of methods ranging from a simple direct visual inspection, a random check of cargo elements or a remote inspection involving scanning (e.g. gamma rays) or probing (air sample analysis). Discrepancies are likely to trigger additional inspections and further delays. Another quick method is the cross-referencing of the stated cargo contents to identify unusual cargo based upon the origin, the carrier and the destination, which requires a rule-based expert system.
  • Cargo integrity. Insuring that the contents of the cargo remain unchanged between the origin and the destination, which involves ways to detect unauthorized access. Through the usages of locks, alarms or probes unauthorized access is prevented and recorded when taking place.
  • Route integrity. Insuring that the routing of the cargo follows the scheduled route and that it remains within secure modes and locations, such as terminals and distribution centers.
  • Information integrity. Insuring that the information about the cargo is authenticated and verifiable.