- Large scale diffusion of pollutants.
- High growth on a short term basis of the concentration
of pollutants because of local conditions (e.g. smog).
- Photochemical reactions caused by ultraviolet rays,
notably over ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide.
- Climatic changes.
- Acid rain.
- Synergetic and cumulative effects when pollutants are
combined (e.g. smog and greenhouse gases).
- Diffusion of pollutants in a dissolved or colloidal
- Acidification and loss of neutralizing potential of
ground and underground water.
- Drops of pH following snow melting (aquatic organism
are particularly vulnerable).
- Growth in the solubility of several metals because of
- Additions of organic compounds, aluminum, manganese,
calcium, magnesium and potassium by runoffs.
- Contamination of ground and underground water by nitrates.
- Modifications of hydrological systems by the construction
and maintenance of infrastructure.
- Acid depositions.
- Liberation of toxic metallic ions (aluminum, cadmium,
etc.) through acidification.
- Loss of nutrients, notably calcium and magnesium.
- Inhibition of the mineralization of nitrogen.
- Modifications in the compositions and the depth of decomposition
- Inhibition of decomposition.
- Loss of the soil flora and fauna.
- Fixation by plants of heavy metals (e.g. lead) and contamination.
- Removal and consumption of land.
- Extraction of raw materials like mineral products and
- AQUATIC ECOSPHERE
- Alteration of ecosystems in unforeseeable ways.
- Disappearance of vulnerable species and proliferation
of tolerant ones.
- Reduction of bacterial treatment of organic matter
- Reduction of available nutrients to aquatic species.
- Reproductive impediments.
- LAND ECOSPHERE
- Damages over the vegetation modifying: hydric cycles,
the level of underground water resources, soil erosion,
air purification capacity of the ecosphere, food sources
(agriculture) and entertainment and tourism potential.
- Reduction of the vital space.
- Reduction of the genetic potential of species.
- Reduction of the food supply and alteration of the
- Consumption of resources.
- HUMAN ECOSPHERE
- Cardiovascular and respiratory problems.
- Susceptibility to infection.
- Drops in life expectancy.
- Injuries, incapacity, hospitalization, death.
- Damage to structures: loss of useful life. (amortization)
loss of property values, corrosion of metal structures
(bronze, steel, etc.) destruction of historical and