Source: adapted from J.D. Chapman (1989) Geography and Energy: Commercial Energy Systems and National Policies, New York: Longman Scientific & Technical.
Transportation Modes and Energy
Within the transport sector there are significant differences between speed, energy costs, mode and type of loads (freight and passengers). Since economies of scale play a crucial role in freight transportation, this is reflected in its lower levels of energy consumption. Overall, transport operators try to seek a compromise between speed (returns in overcoming distance) and energy (costs in overcoming distance). The lowest energy consumption levels are associated with bulk freight traveling at slow speed (like oil) while high levels of energy consumption correspond to passengers or merchandises being carried at high velocities. The first corresponds to a compromise of energy over speed, while the second is a compromise of speed over energy. The compromise for supersonic planes was so disadvantageous that commercial services (Concorde) were abandoned in 2003.