Dimension Outcome Paradox
Costs Reduction of costs through improvement in packaging and reduction of wastes. Benefits are derived by the distributors. Environmental costs are often externalized.
Time / Flexibility Integrated supply chains. JIT and DTD provide flexible and efficient physical distribution systems. Extended production, distribution and retailing structures consuming more space, more energy and producing more emissions (CO2, particulates, NOx, etc.).
Network Increasing system-wide efficiency of the distribution system through network changes (Hub-and-spoke structure). Concentration of environmental impacts next to major hubs and along corridors. Pressure on local communities.
Reliability Reliable and on-time distribution of freight and passengers. Modes used, trucking and air transportation, are the least environmentally efficient.
Warehousing Reducing the needs for private warehousing facilities. Inventory shifted in part to public roads (or in containers), contributing to congestion and space consumption.
Information Technologies Increased business opportunities and diversification of the supply chains. Changes in physical distribution systems towards higher levels of energy consumption.
The Paradoxes of Green Logistics