Source: adapted from Cambridge Systematics (1996) Quick Response Freight Manual,
Federal Highway Administration, Office of Planning and Environment Technical Support
Services for Planning Research, http://tmip.fhwa.dot.gov/clearinghouse/docs/quick/Quick.pdf
||General derived demand impact. Linked with the GDP. Function
of the structure of the economy in terms of resources, goods, and services.
||Effect on ton-kms and on modal choice.
||Effect on ton-kms. Function of international trade structure.
Containerization and intermodal transportation.
||Both concerning trade and transportation. Economic specialization.
Increased transborder traffic. Simplified custom procedures.
|JIT practices and warehousing
||Decreased inventories. More shipments. Smaller line hauls.
Shift to faster and more reliable modes. Use of 3rd party logistics providers.
||Between carriers, shippers and often producers and retailers.
Lower distribution costs.
|Packaging and recycling
||Increased transportability of products. Lower freight density.
|Regulation and deregulation
||Increased competition, level of service and lower costs.
Growth of intermodal transportation.
|Fuel costs, taxes and subsidies
||Large and volatile cost components, specifically for energy
intensive modes. Preferred mode or carrier.
|Infrastructure and congestion
||Efficiency, operating costs and reliability.
|Safety and environmental policies
||Operating speed, conditions and costs. Capacity and weight
||Containerization, double-stacking, automation and robotics,
handling and interchange systems and automated terminals. Information systems
(IDE). Lower costs, increased efficiency and reliability and new opportunities.