Source: Ports Regulator of South Africa Container Port Tariff Comparator Study (2012).
Port Cost Components and Total Port Pricing per TEU, 2012
There are four main port cost components dealing with the harbor side and the land side of port operations:
  • Terminal Handling Charges (THC). The fee collected by terminal operators from shipping lines, who in turn to recovers from the shippers the container terminals costs for the loading or unloading of the containers and other related costs borne by the shipping lines at the port of shipment or destination. The shippers at the origin port of shipment are responsible for paying the THC to the terminal operator at the port of loading. The consignees are responsible for paying the freight rate and the THC (or equivalent) to the terminal operator at the port of destination. Terminal handling charges for exports are usually collected by shipping lines while releasing the Bill of Lading after completion of export customs clearance procedures. The import terminal handling charges is collected by shipping lines at the time of issuing the delivery order to the consignee to take delivery of goods.
  • Cargo Dues (also known as Wharfage): Fee levied by the port authority to the users (exporters, importers or shipping lines) for the provision and maintenance of harbor infrastructure supporting cargo movement such as quays, access roads, railway lines, lighting and bulk services (outside terminal boundaries). This fee is generally fixed and published as an official tariff.
  • Port Dues: This is a charge levied by the port to all entering ships and is generally calculated on the gross registered tonnage of the ship based upon its tonnage certificate. It reflects the provision and maintenance of harbor infrastructure such as entrance channels, breakwaters, turning basins, maintenance dredging and navigational aids inside port limits.
  • Marine Service Costs: Costs paid by the shipping line for compulsory marine services such as pilotage, berthing and tug assistance. Usually incurred when entering and leaving the port, and based on vessel size. Such costs can also be under the port dues.