Growth Factors in Transport Demand
The realized transport demand, expressed in passenger or ton-km, can increase for two reasons. The first is obviously that more passengers or freight loads are being carried. This is an outcome of growth in population, production, consumption and income. The second is a growth in the average distance over which passengers or freight are being carried. Outsourcing, offshoring, economic specialization (factors linked with globalization) and suburbanization are relevant factors behind this trend. These two factors are often occurring concomitantly, creating multiplying effects on the transport demand.