Type III - Strong Center
Characterizes cities having a high land use density and high levels of accessibility to urban transit. There are thus relatively less highways and parking space in central areas, where a set of high capacity public transit lines are servicing most of the mobility needs. The productivity of this urban area is thus mainly related to the efficiency and accessibility of the public transport system. The convergence of radial roads and ring roads favors the location of secondary centers, where converge activities that could no longer able to afford the costs related to the central district. This system characterizes cities having important commercial and financial functions and having grown in the 19th century, such as Paris, New York, Toronto, Tokyo, Sydney and Hamburg. It also characterizes cities that recently undertook as fast wave of urbanization, such as in China; the traditional high density core is being complemented by the setting of sub-centers in a lower density setting.