Characterizes cities having a high land use density and high levels
of accessibility to urban transit. There are thus relatively less
highways and parking space in central areas, where a set of high
capacity public transit lines are servicing most of the mobility needs.
The productivity of this urban area is thus mainly related to the efficiency
and accessibility of the public transport system. The convergence of radial roads and
ring roads favors the location of secondary centers, where converge activities
that could no longer able to afford the costs related to the central
system characterizes cities having important commercial and financial
functions and having grown in the 19th century, such as Paris, New York,
Toronto, Tokyo, Sydney and Hamburg. It also characterizes cities
that recently undertook as fast wave of urbanization, such as in
China; the traditional high density core is being complemented
by the setting of sub-centers in a lower density setting.