Type II - Weak Center
Average land use densities and a concentric pattern are the main characteristics of such urban areas. The central business district is relatively accessible by the automobile and is the point of convergence of the transit system, which tend to be under-used and requiring subsidies. Most urban areas cannot be cost effectively serviced with a transit system, so services are often oriented along major corridors. In many cases, ring roads favored the emergence a set of small centers at the periphery, notably at the convergence of radial lines, some of them effectively competing with the central business district for the location of economic activities. This system is often related to older cities, which emerged in the first half of the twentieth century, such as Melbourne and San Francisco and were afterwards substantially impacted by motorization.