Function Main Mode Nexus
Trade Water transport (maritime and fluvial). Waterfront (Heavy industries, Intermodal terminals).
Production Railway Central stations. Rail terminals and railyards.
Mobility Highway. Transit. Shopping districts. Distribution clusters.
Command Telecommunication Financial / management districts. High technology clusters.
Cities and Connectivity
A city performs different but interdependent functions related to its connectivity. Although a city can assume all types of connectivity, there tend to be a dominance of a particular form based upon its main economic function and the spatial specialization within the city:
  • Trade is linked with long distance maritime transportation with the waterfront being the main nexus. They thus tend to be major port cities handling regional cargo.
  • Production tends to be related with high rail connectivity, which is reinforced by maritime connectivity. This is particularly the case with heavy industries (e.g. steel, petrochemicals) as contemporary manufacturing is more associated with highways.
  • Mobility mainly insures the movements of its residents (movements of passengers) and provides for its consumption needs (movements of freight).
  • Command relates to the range of activities that decide upon the allocation of resources (capital, labor, materials, etc.) and depends on the mobility of information essential to its financial and management activities.