Hybrid Land Use Representation
Since both the concentric, sectorial and zonal models had problems dealing with specific conditions, hybrid representations of urban land uses were developed. They try to include the strengths of each representation. One of the first to do so was W. Isard (1955). This model illustrates that some urban land uses are oriented along major transport axis (sectors), while others, notably industrial and commercial, are located in nuclei where they reach both scale and agglomeration economies. The urban land use is thus an overlay of different transport effects, let them be sectorial, zonal or nuclear.