Hybrid Land Use Representation
Since both the concentric, sectorial and zonal models had problems
dealing with specific conditions, hybrid representations of urban land
uses were developed. They try to include the strengths of each representation.
One of the first to do so was W. Isard (1955). This model illustrates
that some urban land uses are oriented along major transport axis (sectors),
while others, notably industrial and commercial, are located in nuclei
where they reach both scale and agglomeration economies. The urban land
use is thus an overlay of different transport effects, let them be sectorial,
zonal or nuclear.