Source: Adapted from Taaffe E.J., Gauthier H.L. and O'Kelly M.E. (1996) Geography of Transportation (second edition).
- Pre-industrial. Concentric land use development with strong distance decay factors. Cities were compact.
- Streetcar. Sector development along the main lines. The expansion of cities into new residential neighborhoods shaped by street car lines and suburban railway stations.
- Bicycle. Concentric development with less distance decay. This new form of mobility enabled a wider range of suburban development.
- Automobile. Concentric development with low distance decay. The creation of a new suburban space composed of single family homes.
- Highway. Concentric development and emergence of sub-centers along major road intersections. The automobile become the main mode shaping development in many urban areas.