Source: Adapted from Toronto Board of Trade (2014) Toronto as a
Global City: Scorecard on Prosperity - 2014. Toronto: Toronto
Board of Trade.
Average Commuting Time (One Way), Selected Metropolitan
Communing is a very important component of urban mobility
since it accounts for the greater share of urban movement and
has a substantial impact on the commuters' welfare. Through history, the time spent commuting has remained relatively
constant, with about 60 minutes per day (30 minutes in each
direction). This is known as Marchetti's constant in the name of the physicist who established
the relation. Because of high level of motorization, American cities
tend to have the lowest average commuting time in the world. The commuters of Europe and Japan
have longer commuting times, mostly because they are more
dependent on walking and public transit and in spite of more
compact cities. There is thus an inverse relationship between
the level of public transit use and commuting time as passengers tend
to spend more time waiting and transferring within the transit system.
However, the last decade has shown growing commuting times,
particularly in China, mainly due
to increasing motorization in metropolitan areas.