The Geography of Transport Systems
FOURTH EDITION
Jean-Paul Rodrigue (2017), New York: Routledge, 440 pages.
ISBN 978-1138669574
Urban Mobility
Author: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
1. Urban Mobility and its Evolution
Urban transportation is organized in three broad categories of collective, individual and freight transportation. While passenger movements are the outcome of numerous individual decisions based on different rationales, freight movements are decided in tandem between the cargo owners (procurers and customers) and the transportation service providers. In several instances, passengers and freight movements are complementary to one another, but sometimes they may be competing for passengers, the usage of available land and transport infrastructures:
  • Collective Transportation (public transit). The purpose of collective transportation is to provide publicly accessible mobility over specific parts of a city. The systems are usually owned and operated by an agency and access is open to all as long as a fare is paid, therefore the reason why they are called public transit. Its efficiency is based upon transporting large numbers of people and achieving economies of scale. It includes modes such as tramways, buses, trains, subways and ferryboats.
  • Individual Transportation. Includes any mode where mobility is the outcome of a personal choice and means such as the automobile, walking, cycling and the motorcycle. The majority of people walk to satisfy their basic mobility, but this number varies according to the city considered. For instance, walking accounts for 88% of all movements inside Tokyo while this figure is only 3% for Los Angeles.
  • Freight Transportation. As cities are dominant centers of production and consumption, urban activities are accompanied by large movements of freight. These movements are mostly characterized by delivery trucks moving between industries, distribution centers, warehouses and retail activities as well as from major terminals such as ports, railyards, distribution centers and airports. The mobility of freight within cities tends to be overlooked.
Rapid urban development occurring across much of the globe implies increased quantities of passengers and freight moving within urban areas. Movements also tend to involve longer distances, but evidence suggests that commuting times have remained relatively similar through the last hundred years, approximately 1 to 1.2 hours per day. This means that commuting has gradually shifted to faster transport modes and consequently greater distances could be traveled using the same amount of time. Different transport technologies and infrastructures have been implemented, resulting in a wide variety of urban transport systems around the world. In developed countries, there have been three general eras of urban development, and each is associated with a different form of urban mobility:
  • The Walking-Horsecar Era (1800-1890). Even during the industrial revolution, the dominant mean of getting around was on foot. Walking cities were typically less than 5 kilometers in diameter, making it possible to walk from the downtown to the city edge in about 30 minutes. Land use was mixed and density was high (e.g. 100 to 200 people per hectare). The city was compact and its shape was more-or-less circular. Still, the industrial revolution brought additional populations through rural to urban migrations, improved construction techniques allowing for higher densities and new forms and locations of employment. The development of the first public transit in the form of omnibus service extended the diameter of the city but did not change the overall urban structure. The railroad facilitated the first real change in urban morphology. New developments, often referred to as trackside suburbs, emerged as small nodes that were physically separated from the city itself and from one another. The nodes coincided with the location of rail stations and stretched out a considerable distance from the city center, usually up to a half hour train ride. Within the city proper, rail lines were also laid down and horse-cars introduced mass transit.
  • The Electric Streetcar or Transit Era (1890 - 1920s). The invention of the electric traction motor created a revolution in urban travel. The first electric trolley line opened in 1888 in Richmond, Virginia. The operating speed of electric trolley was three times faster than that of horse-drawn vehicles and addition of not generating wastes. The streetcar city was able to spread outward 20 to 30 kilometers along the streetcar lines, creating an irregular, star-shaped pattern. The urban fringes became areas of rapid residential development. Trolley corridors became commercial strips that would come to characterize the structure main commercial areas of cities. The city core was further entrenched as a mixed-use, high density zone. Land use patterns reflected social stratification where suburban outer areas were typically middle class while the working class continued to concentrate in the central city. As street congestion increased in the first half of the 20th century due to the diffusion of the automobile, the efficiency of streetcar systems deteriorated as cars used their right of way. Further, many cities had ordinances that prevented fare increases, implying that many streetcar systems were unprofitable, leading to a lack of maintenance and investment in additional services. These factors contributed to the demise of many streetcar systems.
  • The Automobile Era (1930s - 1950s). The automobile was introduced in European and North American cities in the 1890's, but only the wealthy could afford this innovation. From the 1920s, ownership rates increased dramatically, with lower prices made possible by Henry Ford's revolutionary assembly-line production techniques. As automobiles became more common, land development patterns changed. Developers were attracted to green-field areas located between the suburban rail corridors, and the public was attracted to these single-use zones, thus avoiding many inconveniences associated with city, mainly pollution, crowding and lack of space. Still, this phase usually represented the peak share of public transit in urban mobility as suburban developments did not yet account for a large share of the urban landscape and cities were still high density and transit dependent.
  • The Freeway Era (1950s onward). After the Second World War, the massive diffusion of the automobile as well as the construction of highway networks had substantial impacts on urban mobility. Highways were built to connect the central business district to outlying areas and in many cases complete or partial ring roads were built. The personal mobility offered by the automobile represented a paradigm shift in terms of lifestyle, consumption patterns as well as residential areas. The automobile reduced the friction of distance considerably, which led to urban sprawl. The emergence of the suburb created a new landscape in which public transit did not fit well. Transit ridership fell and transit companies ran into financial difficulties and eventually transit services throughout North America and Europe became subsidized, publicly-owned enterprises. As time went on, commercial activities also began to suburbanize, creating additional mobility systems of passengers and freight. Within a short time, the automobile became the dominant mode of travel in all cities of North America and from the 1970s in a growing number of developed and developing economies. A similar process took place in China at a massive scale in the 2000s.
In many areas of the world where urbanization is more recent, the above synthetic phases did not take place. In the majority of cases fast urban growth led to a scramble to provide transport infrastructure in an inadequate fashion. Each form of urban mobility, be it walking, the automobile or urban transit has a level of suitability to fill mobility needs. Motorization and the diffusion of personal mobility has been an ongoing trend linked with substantial declines in the share of public transit in urban mobility.
2. A Taxonomy of Urban Mobilities
Movements are linked to specific urban activities and their land use. Each type of land use involves the generation and attraction of a particular array of movements. This relationship is complex, but is linked to factors such as recurrence, income, urban form, spatial accumulation, level of development and technology. Urban movements are either obligatory, when they are linked to scheduled activities (such as home-to-work movements), or voluntary, when those generating it are free to decide of their scheduling (such as leisure). The most common types of urban movements are:
  • Pendulum movements. These are obligatory movements involving commuting between locations of residence and work. They are highly cyclical since they are predictable and recurring on a regular basis, most of the time a daily occurrence, thus the term pendulum.
  • Professional movements. These are movements linked to professional, work-based, activities such as meetings and customer services, dominantly taking place during work hours.
  • Personal movements. These are voluntary movements linked to the location of commercial activities, which includes shopping and recreation.
  • Touristic movements. Important for cities having historical and recreational features they involve interactions between landmarks and amenities such as hotels and restaurants. They tend to be seasonal in nature or occurring at specific moments. Major sport events such as the World Cup or the Olympics are important generators of urban movements during their occurrence.
  • Distribution movements. These are concerned with the distribution of freight to satisfy consumption and manufacturing requirements. They are mostly linked to transport terminals, distribution centers and retail outlets. However, the growth of online transactions involves more freight movements being carried to residential areas.
The consideration of urban movements, both for passengers and freight, involves their generation, the modes and routes used and their destination:
  • Trip generation. On average, an urban resident undertakes between 3 and 4 trips per day. Moving in an urban area is usually done to satisfy a purpose such as employment, leisure or access to goods and services. Each time a purpose is satisfied, a trip is generated. Important temporal variations in the number of trips by purpose are observed with the most prevalent pattern being commuting. Similar temporal variations are observed for freight movements with the majority of movements taking place in the morning when goods are delivered to retail outlets. This often leads to conflicts with passengers transport since vehicles are sharing the same road infrastructure which in urban areas is the object of capacity constraints.
  • Modal split. Implies the use of a series of transportation mode for urban trips, which is the outcome of a modal choice. This choice depends on a number of factors such as cost, technology, availability, preference, travel time (distance) and income. Therefore, walking, cycling, public transit, the automobile or even telecommuting, are going to be used either as a choice or as a constraint (lack of choice). For instance, locations within five minutes of walking are considered to be readily accessible to pedestrians. Urban freight distribution can also use a variety of modes, but the van and the truck tend to dominate.
  • Trip assignment (routing). Involves which routes will be used for journeys within the city. Passenger trips usually have a stable routing. For instance, a commuter driving a car has most of the time a fixed route between his residence and place of work. This route may be modified if there is congestion or if another activity (such as shopping) is linked with that trip; a practice often known as trip chaining. The routing of freight distribution is dependent on the types of deliveries involved. For large retail outlets direct deliveries are the norm while for smaller stores and parcel deliveries, vehicles will accommodate flexible routing. Several factors influence trip assignment, the two most important being transport costs, time and congestion levels.
  • Trip destination. Changes in the spatial distribution of economic activities in urban areas have caused important modifications to the destination of movements, notably those related to work. Activity-based considerations are important since each economic activity tends to be associated with a level of trip attraction. Retail, public administration, entertainment and restoration are the activities that attract the most movements per person employed. For freight movements, manufacturing, transport terminals and retail are the activities attracting the most movements. The central city used to be a major destination for movements, particularly passengers, but its share has substantially declined in most areas and suburbs now account for the bulk of urban movements.
Mobility is also a social equity issue. The share of the automobile in urban trips varies in relation to location, social status, income, quality of public transit and parking availability. Mass transit is often affordable, but several social groups, such as students, the elderly and the poor are a captive market. There are important variations in mobility according to age, income, gender and disability. The gender gap in mobility is the outcome of socio-economic differences as access to individual transportation is dominantly a matter of income. Within households, differences in role and income are related to the respective activity range and mobility of its members. Consequently, in some instances modal choice is more a modal constraint linked to economic opportunities.
Central locations are generally having the most urban mobility options because private and public transport facilities are present. However, this does not mean that mobility is easier since central areas are congested. In locations outside the central core, a share of the population not having access to the automobile is facing a level of isolation, or at least a more limited access to amenities and employment opportunities. Limited public transit and high automobile ownership costs have created a class of spatially constrained (mobility deprived) people.
3. Urban Transit
Transit is almost exclusively an urban transportation mode, particularly in large urban agglomerations. The urban environment is particularly suitable for transit because it provides conditions fundamental to its efficiency, namely high density and significant short distance mobility demands. Since transit is a shared service, it potentially benefits from economies of agglomeration related to high densities and from economies of scale related to high mobility demands. One key advantage of public transit is the higher the demand, the more effectively public transit services can be offered. Lower densities are linked with lower demand and a greater likelihood of public transit systems operating at a loss and requiring subsidies. In fact, most public transit systems are not financially sound and have to be subsidized. Transit systems are made up of many types of services, each suitable to a specific set of market and spatial context. Different modes are used to provide complementarity services within the transit system and in some cases between the transit system and other transport systems.
  • Bus transit. One of the most common form of urban transit that include vehicles of various sizes (from small vans to articulated buses) offering seating and standing capacity along scheduled routes and services. They usually share roadways with other modes and are therefore susceptible to congestion. Bus rapid transit systems offer permanent or temporary right of ways and have the advantage of unencumbered circulation.
  • Rail transit. Vehicles of fixed guideways that usually have their own right of way. Light rail systems are composed of streetcars that can share right of ways, particularly in central areas. Heavy rail systems are commonly called subways or metro since many operate underground. Another type of rail transit concerns commuter rail systems that are usually servicing central business districts and peripheral areas along specific corridors.
  • Taxi systems. Usually private for hire vehicles such as automobiles, jitneys or rickshaws to offer point to point services. Recent technological developments have enabled car sharing services and expanded the availability of on demand transit.
  • Alternative transit. Refer to transit systems that were developed to cope with specific conditions (or niche markets) using alternative modes. Ferries are the most common form of alternative transit as they are servicing cities having waterways separating different urban districts. Funiculars are also prevalent in locations have a steep incline and enough traffic to justify their construction. Aerial lifts are also used in some settings to connect locations difficult of access.
Contemporary transit systems tend to be publicly owned, implying that many decisions related to their development and operation are politically motivated. This is a sharp contrast of what took place in the past as most transit systems were private and profit driven initiatives. With the fast diffusion of the automobile in the 1950s, many transit companies faced financial difficulties, and the quality of their service declined; in a declining market there were limited incentives to invest. Gradually, they were purchased by public interests and incorporated into large agencies, mainly to continue providing mobility. As such, public transit often serves more a social function of public service and a tool of social equity than having an economic role. Transit has become dependent on government subsidies, with little if any competition permitted as wages and fares are regulated. As a result, they tend to be disconnected from market forces and subsidies are constantly required to keep a level of service. With suburbanization transit systems tend to have even less relationships with economic activities.
Government owned public transit systems are facing financial difficulties for three main reasons. The first is that they are often designed to service taxpayers, not necessarily potential customers. Because of the funding base, transit systems may be spread into neighborhoods that do not provide a significant customer base. The second is that transit unions were able to extract significant advantages in terms of wages and social benefits, increasing labor costs. The third concerns a technology fixation which incites to invest in high cost transit (e.g. light rail transit) while low cost solutions (buses) would have been sufficient to many transit systems, particularly in lower density areas.
Reliance on urban transit as a mode of urban transportation tends to be high in Asia, intermediate in Europe and low in North America. Since their inception in the early 19th century, comprehensive urban transit systems had significant impacts on the urban form and spatial structure, but this influence is receding. Three major classes of cities can be found in terms of the relationships they have with their transit systems:
  • Adaptive cities. Represent true transit-oriented cities where urban form and urban land use developments are coordinated with transit developments. While central areas are adequately serviced by a metro system and are pedestrian friendly, peripheral areas are oriented along transit rail lines.
  • Adaptive transit. Represent cities where transit plays a marginal and residual role and where the automobile accounts for the dominant share of movements. The urban form is decentralized and of low density.
  • Hybrids. Represent cities that have sought a balance between transit development and automobile dependency. While central areas have an adequate level of service, peripheral areas are automobile-oriented.
Contemporary land development tends to precede the introduction of urban transit services, as opposed to concomitant developments in earlier phases of urban growth. Thus, new services are established once a demand is deemed to be sufficient, often after being the subject of public pressures. Transit authorities operate under a service warrant and are often running a recurring deficit as services are becoming more expensive to provide. This has led to a set of considerations aimed at a higher integration of transit in the urban planning process, especially in North America, where such a tradition is not well established. Still, in spite of decades of investment, North American public transit ridership has roughly remained the same throughout the 1980s and 1990s, but has increased since then, leading to expectations that they may become more profitable.
From a transportation perspective, the potential benefits of a better integration between transit and local land uses are reduced trip frequency and increased use of alternative modes of travel (i.e. walking, biking and transit). Evidence is often lacking to support such expectations since the relative share of public transit ridership is declining across the board. There is often a reciprocal relationship between automobile ownership and the use of public transit. Good accessibility to public transit is often associated with lower automobile use while areas of high automobile use may impair the development of public transit systems since the automobile is already dominant.
Community and land use design can consequently have a significant influence on travel patterns. Local land use impacts can be categorized in three dimensions of relationships and are influenced by levels of use. Land use initiatives should be coordinated with other planning and policy initiatives to cope with automobile dependence. However, there is a strong bias against transit in the general population because of negative perceptions, especially in North America, but increasingly globally. As personal mobility is a symbol of status and economic success, the users of public transit are perceived as the least successful segment of the population. This bias may undermine the image of transit use within the general population, but can be subject to change with the evolution of social norms and values.