Mobility Gaps in Urban Areas
Many cities have two mobility spaces, one which is transit-oriented and usually in central areas, and the other which is car-oriented and in peripheral areas. Mobility gaps can have important impacts on employment opportunities. A mobility-constrained individual (without a car) has access to only a limited number of jobs, which are within reach of public transit. This commonly correspond to central urban areas that are better serviced by transit. Still, central areas tend to have a large labor market, but deconcentration and suburbanization has resulted in higher employment growth in peripheral areas. A mobile individual (with a car) has access to a wider array of jobs and thus have more choice and opportunities. Consequently, accessibility can be a factor of spatial opportunity as jobs may be available, but not easily accessible to a segment of the population.