Source: Behrends and Rodrigue, 2015.
Types of Urban Freight Flows
Urban logistics involves two main functional classes of flows:
Urban freight flows,
like most freight flows, are imbalanced in their reciprocity. This is
particularly the case for consumer-related flows that are usually
unidirectional and related with empty backhauls. For instance, retail
deliveries (most commonly from distribution centers) are one way freight
flows with the delivery vehicle returning empty or with small loads of
returned goods or recyclables (e.g. cardboard boxes). Commercial to residential
freight flows are almost exclusively involving consumers carrying their
purchases from stores to their place of residence by walking, car,
public transit or cycling.
- Producer-related flows includes industrial and
terminal haulage, such as interregional and global freight flows,
usually in unit loads such as containers and full truckloads,
originating from or destined to terminals, manufacturing or distribution
facilities. This form of flows is usually taking place in a massified
form, benefiting from economies of scale.
flows includes intra-urban urban freight flows, usually as part
loads and parcels originating from distribution facilities and destined
to commercial facilities or residential households.