Delivery to retail stores Consumer shopping trips Home deliveries from online purchases
Large quantities Small quantities One box
Boxes, pallets, roll cages Bags Parcels
Homogeneous loads Heterogeneous loads Heterogeneous loads
Trucks and vans Passenger cars, public transit Small trucks and vans
One stop One stop + trip chaining Several stops (delivery route)
Own transport and common carriers Own transport Courier and parcel companies
Distribution center to retail areas Retail to residential areas Distribution center to residential areas
Distribution center opening hours Store opening hours Potential for many delivery failures
Source: adapted from Visser, J. and T. Nemoto (2002) "E-commerce and the Consequences for Freight Transport" in E. Taniguchi and R.G. Thompson (eds) Innovations in Freight Transport, Southampton: WIT Press.
Main Forms of Urban Retail Goods Movements
Up to the late 1990s, urban retail goods movements, particularly those concerning large retail stores, took place in a conventional manner where goods were brought to store outlets and consumers traveled to the stores to purchase them and bring the goods home on their own account. The emergence of online purchases added a new dimension to urban retail goods movements with the delivery of parcels directly to the consumer's home.