Producer-Driven Commodity Chains Buyer-Driven Commodity Chains
Drivers of Global Commodity Chains Industrial Capital Commercial Capital
Core Competencies Research & Development; Production Design; Marketing
Barriers to Entry Economies of scale Economies of scope
Economic Sectors Consumer Durables; Intermediate Goods; Capital Goods Consumer Nondurables
Typical Industries Automobiles; Computers; Aircraft Apparel; Footwear; Toys
Ownership of Manufacturing Firms Transnational Firms Local Firms, predominantly in developing countries
Main Network Links Investment-based Trade-based
Predominant Network Structure Vertical Horizontal

Source: adapted from G. Gereffi (1999) A Commodity Chains Framework for Analyzing Global Industries,
Characteristics of Producer-Driven and Buyer-Driven Global Commodity Chains