Source: Adapted from the Stan Shih "Smile Curve" concept.
- Competition over concepts. In a global production and consumption market R&D, branding and design (creating a product) can be a significant component of the competitiveness and added value of a commodity chain. This requires specific scientific, technical and design (aesthetical) capabilities. This is also known as pre-fabrication services.
- Competition over processes. The manufacturing function (or fabrication) of many corporations has been hollowed out by the process of globalization, in which manufacturing accounts for one of the least added value activity, particularly if it takes place within an outsourcing and offshoring framework. They enable to lower conventional input costs such as labor and raw materials. The massive entry of low cost manufacturers led to a high level of competitiveness in fabrication, reducing profit margins as well as its overall level of contribution to added value. Still, fabrication remains functionally the most important process within a value chain and is influenced by production and location factors.
- Competition over markets. The growing complexity of products and market imperatives have reinforced the importance of the logistics segment (making a specified product available on markets). It includes distribution, marketing and sales / after sales services (such as customer support), activities that are generating significant added value. This is also known as post-fabrication services.