Pipeline Marine Rail Truck
Volumes Large Very large Small Large
Materials Crude / Products Crude / Products Products Products
Scale 2 ML+ 10 ML+ 100 kL 5-60 kL
Unit costs Very low Low High Very high
Capital costs High Medium Low Very low
Access Very limited Very limited Limited High
Responsiveness 1-4 weeks 7 days 2-4 days 4-12 hours
Flexibility Limited Limited Good High
Usage Long haul Long haul Medium haul Short haul
Source: adapted from Ken Dymock (2007) General Manager, Distribution, Petro Canada, Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport, Transportation Situation & Outlook Conference.
Modes Used for Petroleum Transportation