Source: Adapted from The International Tankers Owners Pollution
Federation Limited & Energy Information Administration,
World Oil Transit Chokepoints.
Oil Transportation and Major Chokepoints
The bulk of the oil transported (62%) is using maritime
transportation, which follows very specific routes and which
is constrained by
strategic passages that are commonly referred as chokepoints.
The Persian Gulf is a major source of oil shipped by maritime
transportation with maritime routes reaching Europe through
the Suez Canal, China, Japan and South Korea, through the
Strait of Malacca and North America through the Cape of
Good Hope. Russian oil exports are going through the strait
of Oresund, mostly towards European markets. Limited oil
trade takes place across the Pacific since there are few
significant producers. Most Mexican oil exports is bound
to the United States while Indonesia has ceased to be a
significant oil exporter.
Major continental movements involve the Russian and former
Soviet Republic's petroleum shipped to Europe by pipeline
and Alaskan and Canadian petroleum shipped to the United
States also by pipeline. Other important oil shipments are
from Africa to North America and Europe, from the North
Sea to Europe and from South America to North America.