Source: Rodrigue and Hatch (2009).
Types of Intermodal Terminals
There are three major types of intermodal terminals each having their own locational and equipment requirements:
  • Port terminals. They are the most substantial intermodal terminals in terms of traffic, space consumption and capital requirements. A container sea terminal provides an interface between the maritime and inland systems of circulation. The growth of long distance maritime container shipping has also favored the emergence of intermediate hub terminals, some having an offshore location. Their purpose is mainly to transship containers from one shipping network to the other and they essentially have little, if any, hinterland connections. The terminal is used as a buffer while containers wait to be loaded on another ship. The containerization of inland river systems has led to the development of an array of barge terminals linked with major deep sea terminals with scheduled barge services. At the maritime container terminal, barges can either use regular docking areas or have their own terminal facilities if congestion is an issue. Although barge to barge terminal container services are technically possible, they are not very common.
  • Rail terminals. At the start of the inland intermodal chain rail terminals are linked with port terminals. The fundamental difference between an on-dock and a near-dock rail facility is not necessary the distance from the terminal facilities, but terminal clearance. While for an on-dock rail terminal containers can be moved directly from the dock (or the storage areas) to a railcar using the terminal's own equipment, accessing a near-dock facility requires clearing the terminal's gate (delays), using the local road system (congestion) and clearing the gate of the near-dock rail terminal (delays). On dock terminals tend to be designed to only handle containers on flatcars (COFC). Near-dock facilities tend to have more space available and can thus play a significant role in the maritime / rail interface, particularly if they are combined with transloading activities. The satellite terminal, the load center and the transmodal terminal all qualify as a form of inland port and are commonly designed to handle both COFC and trailers on flatcars (TOFC). For the satellite terminal, it is mainly a facility located at a peripheral and less congested site that often performs activities that have become too expensive or space consuming for the maritime terminal. Rail satellite terminals can be linked to maritime terminals through rail shuttle or truck drayage (more common) services. A load center is a standard intermodal rail terminal servicing a regional market area. If combined with a variety of logistical activities, namely freight distribution centers, it can take the form of a freight distribution cluster. The surge of inland long distance containerized rail traffic also require transmodal (rail to rail) operations as freight is moved from one rail network to the other. This can be done by switch carriers or trucking containers from one terminal to the other. Eventually, dedicated rail-to-rail terminals are likely to emerge.
  • Distribution centers. They represent a distinct category of intermodal terminals performing an array of value added functions to the freight, with transmodal operations dominantly supported by trucking. Distribution centers can perform three major types of function. A transloading facility mainly transfers the contents of maritime containers into domestic containers or truckloads (or vice-versa). It is common in North America to have three 40 foot maritime containers transferred into two 53 foot domestic containers. Sometimes, shipments are palletized as part of the transloading process since many containers are floor loaded. Cross-docking is another significant function that commonly takes place in the last segment of the retail supply chain. With very limited storage, the contents of inbound loads are sorted and transloaded to their final destinations. Warehousing is a standard function still performed by a majority of distribution centers that act as buffers and points of consolidation or deconsolidation within supply chains.