Parameter Standard Container Port Emerging Paradigm
Berthing depth 12 to 15 meters (40 to 50 feet) More than 15 meters (50 feet)
Stacking density 1,000 to 1,200 TEUs per hectare 2,000 to 4,000 TEUs per hectare
Ship-to-shore gantry crane (portainer) productivity About 20-30 movements per hour About 40-50 movements per hour
Daily throughput per ship 3,000 to 4,000 TEUs 5,000 to 6,000 TEUs
Dwell time at container yard About 6 days About 3 days
Truck turnaround time About 60 minutes About 30 minutes
Rail access In port area On dock
Source: adapted from M.C. Ircha (2006) Characteristics of Tomorrow's Successful Port, The AIMS Atlantica Papers #4, Atlantic Institute of Market Studies,
Technical Changes in Container Port Terminals
With the growth of traffic and economies of scale applied to maritime shipping, port terminals are facing pressures to improve their productivity and efficiency. A standard container port accommodating panamax and post-panamax containerships has a set of technical characteristics related to berthing depth, stacking density, crane productivity, dwell time, truck turnaround time and accessibility to rail services. A new generation of container port terminals is gradually coming online with significant improvements. This involves new infrastructures, equipment and procedures. It is also a matter of competitiveness, both on the maritime and inland sides since port terminals are competing with other port terminals to service continental hinterlands.