Function Activities
Land Land acquisition (purchase or lease)
Land reclamation projects
Maritime Access Access channel dredging
Sea locks & breakwaters
Vessel traffic service & ship movement information networks
Light buoys & navigational aids
Port Infrastructure Internal locks; docks, quays, jetties piers, berths
Harbor basin dredging
Port Superstructure Pavement
Warehouses, sheds
Cranes and gantries and other mobile/semi-mobile equipment
Terminal and office buildings
Public utilities (sewage, water supply, electricity)
Infrastructure Links Railways, roads, canals, tunnels and bridges within the port area
Port Maintenance Maintenance dredging; infra and superstructure
Port Services Cargo handling (stevedoring, storage, stowage)
Nautical services (pilotage, towage, mooring)
Other services (firefighting, water & electricity supply, security, bunkering, pollution control, etc.)
Port Planning Promoting logistics and industrial areas
Marketing to existing and potential users
Planning of infrastructure and superstructure developments
Source: Adapted from P. Cariou. Port management lecture notes.
Port Activities
Port activities cover a wide range of functions. For instance, maritime access involves activities such as the dredging of access channels, the construction of breakwaters (if required), the setting of vessel traffic services to help navigation to approach and navigate within the port as well as buoys and other navigation aids. All these activities fall under different branches. Infrastructure investments and developments are usually done by port authorities while superstructure investments are done by terminal operators, many of which are private companies leasing the terminal. All these activities are necessary for the planning, development and operation of a port and are part of its incurred costs.