|Substitution||Small ships instead of large ships (better
Water instead of land (modal shift).
|Network expansion||More links and wider coverage (more traffic
Intersection and relay (transit between long distance services).
|Imposed||Lack of port infrastructure (capacity
unavailable for large ships).
Lack of traffic (not enough traffic to justify a large ship call).
Congestion (potential delays for large ships).
High port costs (port call charges versus volume).
|Cost trade off||Savings in ship cost vs. additional port handling (advantages of ‘offshore’ locations).|
|Level of service||Transit Time (varied; depend on the port
Frequency (higher; more port calls).
Reliability (less; more potential for delays).