Source: adapted from Hoyle B.S. (1989) "The port-city interface: trends problems and examples", Geoforum, Vol. 20, pp. 429-35.
- The migration of several terminals towards peripheral locations. The need for additional space and deeper drafts have incited terminal operators to seek new sites that are located further away from the conventional sites.
- The containerization of terminals has reduced labor requirements since a modern container terminal is capital intensive and require a small quantity of qualified labor to operate. Port terminal thus employ much less people than before, reducing a whole array of port/city interactions, such as commuting.
- Safety and security issues have become more salient implying that access to port areas, particularly terminals, is restricted.
- Modern ship operations require less labor. Also, due to flags of convenience, ship labor is mostly multinational (e.g. Philippines) and therefore not linked to the communities along the ports of call. Containerships spend little time at ports, often less than 24 hours, considerably reducing opportunities for shore leaves.
- Hinterland accessibility has improved, implying that the majority of economic activities using the port are located further inland and not, as it was conventionally the case, in close proximity to port terminals.