Source: E.G. Frankel (2006) "The Future of Containerization". International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME), Izmir, Turkey.
- Larger containerships. This implies potentially more unproductive moves as containers may need to be temporarily offloaded to access containers in lower stacks. Such costs and delays could partially negate the benefits of economies of scale.
- Intermediate hubs. The setting of offshore hubs at intermediate locations implies a growing quantity of containers are transloaded between ships, which involves additional movements for the same journey.