Source: UNCTAD, Review of Maritime Transport, various years.
North American Containerized Trade with Asia, 1995-2012
North American trade (particularly the United States) with several countries of the Pacific is chronically imbalanced, notably with China, Japan and South Korea. These imbalances have emerged during the 1990. From an imports / exports ratio close to 1 in 1995, this ratio surged to 2.8 in 2006 (2.8 times more loaded containers traded between Asia in the United States than between the United States and Asia). This trend has important implications on the movements of containers as well as on transport costs. The Asian financial crisis of 1997 was a factor contributing to the growth of transpacific container imbalances, mostly due to the debasement of several Asian currencies. China also maintained through that period a fixed exchange rate with the US dollar as part of its export-oriented strategy.
Due to economies of scale in maritime shipping the costs of moving a container from East Asia to the United States dropped by a factor of 50% during the 1990s. However, trade imbalances force Asian exporters to pay on average 50% more in container shipping costs than their American counterparts. There are however indications that imbalances will recede in the future, particularly after the financial crisis of 2008-2009. While the import / export ratio reached 2.7 in 2006 it corrected sharply to reach 1.7 in 2009. Since then, the ratio has hovered around 1.9. It remains to be seen what impact future economic and technological changes will have on the balance of containerized trade.