Note: Also includes seasonal services.
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Longitudinal Intermediacy: Icelandair
Icelandair is a small airline company that carried around 2.6 million passengers in 2014. Because of the convenient intermediary location of Reykjavik along the transatlantic great circle route, the airline has been successful at establishing a pure long distance hub-and-spoke system servicing mostly Northern Europe and nine North American cities. Scandinavian airports using Reykjavik to reach North America have a particularly low deviation. The same applies to western North American airports (Seattle, Denver and Minneapolis) having a low deviation to Western European airports. Additionally, Scandinavian countries may not generate enough traffic to justify regular direct services to American airports and using congested European hubs such as London, Paris or Amsterdam involves higher deviation and the risk of delays. Therefore, the consolidation of traffic at Reykjavik becomes an effective business proposition.
Icelandair's fleet of 26 aircrafts in majority composed of 757s whose range of 7,700 km is sufficient to support its service pairs (the range of the aircraft goes beyond Anchorage, which is the longest service route). Since the intermediacy offered by Icelandair connects the eastern and western parts of the Atlantic, it is labeled as longitudinal intermediacy (latitudinal intermediacy connects airports along a north / south range). Iceland is the only effective location for such a pan Atlantic network as there are no other significant airports in the North Atlantic. It is expected with the growth of economic activity along the arctic circle that the role of Iceland as an intermediary hub would be reinforced.