Tramping Liner Shipping
  Transportation Demand
Number of shippers Few Many
Quantity Large Small
Density High (weight) Low (volume)
Unit value Low High
Regularity Low High
  Transportation Supply
Contract Vessel Freight (bill of lading)
Vessels Liquid and bulk General cargo (mostly containerized)
Frequency Low High
  Implications
Freight Liquid and main bulk commodities Minor bulk and general cargo (containerized)
Services supply / demand regulation Prior to demand
Freight elasticity Low Low
Markets Developing / developed countries Developed / developed countries
  Share in Maritime Transport (2000)
Tons 70% 30%
Value 20% 80%
Source: adapted from P. Cariou (2003) Co-operation agreements in Liner Shipping.
Maritime Shipping Characteristics
.