Challenge Issues
Container availability Locational and load unit availability.
Container preparation Pre-use cleaning (avoid contamination).
Usage of liners.
Post-use cleaning.
Dedicated containers?
Container loading, unloading and transloading Bulks difficult to load horizontally.
Vertical loading / unloading (equipment).
Transloading issues.
Source loading.
Weight Limitations to about 30 tons (40 footer).
20 footer the preferable load unit (26-28 tons).
Weight distribution Containership load (10-14 tons per TEU).
Trade imbalances create mitigation strategies.
Land consumption at port terminals Space consumption (4 times more than bulk) mitigated by velocity.
Existing distribution channels Considerable accumulated investments (modes & terminals).
Established distribution practices.
Modal shift inertia.
Challenges for the Containerization of Commodities