|Container availability||Locational and load unit availability.|
|Container preparation||Pre-use cleaning (avoid contamination).
Usage of liners.
|Container loading, unloading and transloading||Bulks difficult to load horizontally.
Vertical loading / unloading (equipment).
|Weight||Limitations to about 30 tons (40
20 footer the preferable load unit (26-28 tons).
|Weight distribution||Containership load (10-14 tons
Trade imbalances create mitigation strategies.
|Land consumption at port terminals||Space consumption (4 times more than bulk) mitigated by velocity.|
|Existing distribution channels||Considerable accumulated investments
(modes & terminals).
Established distribution practices.
Modal shift inertia.