Source: adapted from J.J. Coyle, E.J. Bardi and R.A. Novack (1994) Transportation, Fourth Edition, New York: West Publishing Company, p. 402.

Hub-and-spoke Structure

The Hub-and-spoke structure is a mutation of the point-to-point structure. The point-to-point structure enables a greater number of routes (11) but some routes may have a low frequency of service as well as low traffic, implying system-wide inefficiencies. The hub-and-spoke structure concentrates movements in a lesser number of routes (6), but the frequency of service is higher, thus minimizing time between most origins and destinations. Air transportation companies have massively applied this network structure to enhance the overall efficiency of their service and increase the number of serviced airports.