Source: Adapted from M. Domosh, R.P. Neumann, P.L. Price and T.G. Jordan-Bychkov (2009) The Human Mosaic: A Cultural Approach to Human Geography, 11th Edition, Cranbury NJ: W.H. Freeman.
- Defense. An array of sites offer various defensive advantages which can be expanded by the building of fortifications. This mainly refers to cities established before the industrial revolution. River meander and island sites are good example of defensible sites with cities such as New Orleans and Paris prime examples. The coastline also offers defensible sites such as a peninsula (or an offshore island), such as Boston and Hong Kong, or an sheltered harbor site such as New York and Rio de Janeiro. The presence of a promontory can further expand the defensive capabilities of any of the above sites.
- Commerce. With the industrial revolution, and in several cases, well before, trade relations became important location factors, with accessible sites along river systems particularly suitable. Bridge-point sites are locations where a bridge could more easily be constructed, such as a narrower river segment. For instance, London was the first suitable site along the Thames River where a bridge could be built. A confluence site benefits from the accessibility of two (or more) river systems, such as the case of Pittsburgh. Portage sites are established to link two river systems that otherwise would not be connected such as Chicago (Great Lakes and Mississippi system). High land transportation costs prior to the industrial revolution particularly underlined the importance of head of navigation sites, which are the furthest convenient locations that could be reached. Montreal and Minneapolis are such examples.