Source: adapted from Markusen, A. (1996) "Sticky Places in Slippery
Space: A Typology of Industrial Districts", Economic Geography, Vol.
72, No. 3, pp. 293-313.
Types of Manufacturing Clustering
The above figure portrays three types of manufacturing clustering:
- Marshallian industrial district. This form of clustering
is characterized by a division of labor between small firms engaged
in complementary activities and an advanced specialization. Northern
Italy particularly relates to this type of regional flexible specialization
where networking is an important component of industrial dynamics.
The distribution system is commonly serviced by small batch flows
between the numerous suppliers and customers.
- Hub-and-spoke district. A situation in which an industrial
sector has suppliers clustering around one or several core firms.
The hub-and-spoke district is distinct from Marshallian district,
as its dynamics are a function of the dominant firm rather than
networking among smaller firms. The fate of the region is often
linked with the fate of core firm. The firm Boeing and the region
of Seattle are a common example of a hub-and-spoke district. The
distribution system is bound to the requirement of the large firm
which is large enough to have its own transport operations.
- Satellite platform district. A set of unconnected branch
plants embedded in external organization links, each part of its
own globally oriented supply chain. A satellite platform district
often corresponds to a location of high accessibility around which
the branch plants have clustered, such as a transport terminal.