Innovation Characteristics Role
Superships (1960-) Bulk and tank vessels with a mass up to half a million deadweight tons. Reduce transport costs through massive economies of scale.
Container vessels (1968-) Vessel specifically designed to carry containers. Carry primarily manufactured goods with the capacity to interface with major land transport systems.
Jet aircraft (1958-) Fast non-stop services between major urban centers. Linked with the development of tertiary and quaternaty activities such as banking, finance and tourism.
Fuel-efficient vehicles (1970-) Reduction in fuel consumption due to lower weight and more efficient engines. Enabled highway transport to increase its share of urban an intercity transport.
High-speed trains (1964-) Trains capable of moving at speed higher than 200 km/hr. Effective competition between intercity air and road transport in high density areas.
Source: Adapted from Sletmo, G.K. (1989) "Shipping's Fourth Wave: Ship Management and Vernon's Trade Cycles", Maritime Policy and Management, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 293-303.
Major Technological Improvements in Transportation, Second Half of the 20th Century