Source: Ship log data from CLIWOC Project. Data geocoded by David Hopp.
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- Spain. The Spanish trade was mainly focused on their American colonies, particularly Mexico (which was linked to the transpacific trade through an overland route), Cuba and Hispaniola. The transatlantic triangular trade system follows the pattern of wind and sea currents that incites to use the southern part of the North Atlantic for westbound travel and the northern part of the North Atlantic for eastbound travel. The second main component of the Spanish maritime trade network concerns the Argentinian trade. Less visible are the connections to Chile and Peru through the Strait of Magellan.
- Netherlands. The Dutch maritime trade network is mostly associated with the activities of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) with a long distance network heading towards VOC's main trade ports of Batavia (Indonesia) and Galle (Sri Lanka) and using Cape Town as an intermediary staging point (a Dutch colony between 1652 and 1806). Dutch interests were also involved in the triangular transatlantic trade with their colonies of the Caribbean and Guyana (Dutch colony between 1616 and 1814).
- United Kingdom. Its trade network is the most extensive as it reflects the emergence of the UK during that period as the world's dominant maritime power with colonial interests in the Americas and South Asia. The Arctic trade segment is mainly related to the activities of the Hudson Bay Company established in 1670 for the fur trade around Rupert's Land.
- France. The trade network depicted by French flagged ships is the simplest and limited to the triangular trade structure between France, its Caribbean colonies (Haiti, Guadeloupe and Martinique) and New France (St. Pierre and Miquelon after 1763).