Common Problems for Transport Systems
There are four major types of problems that affect transport systems:
  • Capacity. A basic constraint concerns appropriate capacity, both along a transport route and at a terminal. The capacity of a transport system is often restricted by its circulation bottlenecks.
  • Transfer. Transfer points are crucial as they permit the interface between different transport systems, a role commonly served by hubs or gateways. For instance, a port is commonly the interface between maritime and inland systems of circulation while an airport can act as a hub connecting different air networks such as regional and international.
  • Reliability. A multidimensional problem that concern the expectation that a movement will occur within a specific time and cost range. While a route could be shorter, it may not be as reliable as a longer route. Congestion is a common factor impairing the reliability of a transport system since it can impose inconsistent time delays and additional costs.
  • Integration. Involves exploiting the benefits of each transport mode so that flows become more reliable and/or less costly. Integration is sought by intermodal transportation, but also by airline companies connecting different parts of the world.