|Economic Costs||Accidents/Spills||Cleanup costs|
|Social Costs||Public health||Health services costs|
|Environmental Costs||Damage to ecosystems||Contamination of local environment|
- Economic Costs. They mostly involve cleanup costs and, when the hazmat accident occurs in some inhabited areas, population relocation is often necessary for a short period. There is an inverse relationship between economic costs of a hazmat accident and its social and environmental costs. In developed countries where there are strict regulations, social and environmental costs are often minimal while economic costs (cleanup and relocation) are extensive. In many developing countries where environmental regulations are not enforced, economic costs are not supported, thus transferring the impacts over social and environmental costs, which are obviously more difficult to measure and evaluate.
- Social Costs. Direct medical costs related to hazmat accidents are possible to evaluate more directly since statistics are available. Like all environmental externalities, indirect consequences may be higher than the sum of direct consequences. This relationship is however less important for hazmat accidents because of their punctuality and scale.
- Environmental Costs. Since hazmats accidents are punctual events, their environmental costs may be assessed in a comprehensive manner. They provide specific case studies of the effects of pollutants over environmental systems.