Field Types of Pollutants Contribution of Transportation Possible Measures
Structures and infrastructure Ozone, Smog, Particulates, Acid rain Vehicle emissions; CO2 (30%), CO (70-90%), SO2 (5%), NOx (45-50%), HC/VOC (40-50%), Particulates (25%), O3 (indirect), Smog (indirect), Acid rain (10-30%), CFCs (20%), Lead (30%) Loss of useful life
Replacement and restoration costs
Labor productivity Carbon monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, HC/VOC, Particulates, Ozone, Smog, Lead, Odors, Noise Men-hours-wage losses
Agricultural productivity Carbon monoxide, Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, HC/VOC, Particulates, Ozone, Acid rain, CFCs (indirect), Greenhouse effect Output/surface decrease
Biomass restoration time losses
Fishing and commercial extraction Air pollution fallouts, Marine vessels discharges and spills, De-icing of infrastructure, Runoffs, Construction and maintenance of infrastructure Vehicle emissions, During transport, Infrastructure (dredging: 80%) Output/volume decrease
Lost revenues from recreational fishing
Recreational facilities Drop of attendance
Loss in rent values
Water purification Treatment costs
Inspection costs
Accidents / Spills Marine vessels discharges and spills, Accidental and intentional releases (Hazmat) During transport; Road (84.1%), Rail (12.5%), Air (3.2%) and Maritime (0.1%) Cleanup costs
Relocation costs
Property values Noise Vehicle emissions; Road (70%), Rail (10%) and Air (20%) Loss of rent value per decibel
Public Health Carbon monoxide, Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, HC/VOC, Particulates, Ozone, Smog, Lead, Noise Vehicle emissions, During transport Health services costs
Loss of life expectancy
Damage to the ecosystem All the above Vehicle emissions, During transport, Infrastructure Biological diversity and sustainability
Loss of water regeneration / purification by wetland
Contamination of local environments
Loss of living areas due to high noise levels
Environmental Externalities of Transportation
The assessment of environmental externalities of transportation involves multiple causes, effects and consequences. Some are clear, evident and well documented, while several are indirect, subjective and linked with other sources.