Distance Travelled for One Ton of Cargo Using 1 kWh of Energy
The transportation of freight relies on a variety of modes, each
having its own level of energy performance. Air freight is highly
energy intensive and does not interact much with other modes, except
for trucking when last mile shipments are concerned. Still, air
freight serves a different freight market dominantly concerned with
high value goods.
While for road, rail and maritime modes, each may service a
different freight market, intermodalism makes possible a sequence of
modes that can optimize energy efficiency for any given transport
chain. The energy benefits of
economies of scale in maritime shipping are evident, but the reach
of maritime shipping is limited to port facilities.