Source: Unknown.
Distance Travelled for One Ton of Cargo Using 1 kWh of Energy
The transportation of freight relies on a variety of modes, each having its own level of energy performance. Air freight is highly energy intensive and does not interact much with other modes, except for trucking when last mile shipments are concerned. Still, air freight serves a different freight market dominantly concerned with high value goods.
While for road, rail and maritime modes, each may service a different freight market, intermodalism makes possible a sequence of modes that can optimize energy efficiency for any given transport chain. The energy benefits of economies of scale in maritime shipping are evident, but the reach of maritime shipping is limited to port facilities.