|Usage of incentives||Coordinate operations of freight actors.
Optimal usage of transport chains.
Usage of preferential tariff structure.
|Inter-firm alliances||Vertical integration (along transport chains).
Horizontal integration (between competitors).
Alliance between a maritime shipping company and a terminal operator (vertical).
Equipment / container pools (horizontal).
|Organizational scope||Vertical integration where an actor decides
to penetrate a new market.
A maritime shipping company involved in port terminal operations.
A port authority developing an inland port.
|Collective action||Public / private partnerships to create logistic
Each actor contributes within its realm of expertise.
Development of port community systems.
- Usage of incentives. Coordinate operations of freight actors so that the usage of transport chains and the underlying assets is more optimal. It can involve using a preferential rate structure for customers that provide a minimum volume or that meet a level of reliability. Others will be incited to follow since the reward is a lower cost access to the infrastructures.
- Inter-firm alliances. Concerns two types of alliances. The first is vertical integration (along transport chains) where, for instance, a maritime shipping company and a terminal operator can agree to better coordinate their services. The second is horizontal integration (between competitors) where, for instance an equipment or container pool can be established to improve the level of asset utilization.
- Organizational scope. Vertical integration process where an actor decides to penetrate a new market to expand or add value to its activities. For instance, a maritime shipping company can be involved in port terminal operations. Also, a port authority could be involved in the development an inland port as a strategy to alleviate congestion and expand to market potential of its hinterland.
- Collective actions. A series of strategies under the leadership of the port authority such as the setting of public / private partnerships to create a logistic zone. Each actor contributes within its realm of expertise. The development of port community systems is also a collective action that is receiving attention.