# The Trigonometric Functions by Stefan Waner and Steven R. Costenoble

## This Section: 4. Integrals of Trigonometric Functions

 3. Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions Section 4 Exercises Trigonometric Functions Main Page "Real World" Page

4. Integrals of Trigonometric Functions

Recall from the definition of an antiderivative that, if

 ddx f(x) = g(x),

then

 g(x) dx = f(x) + C.

That is, every time we have a differentiation formula, we get an integration formula for nothing. Here is a list of some of them.

Derivative Rule
Antiderivative Rule
 ddx sin x = cos x
 cos x dx = sin x + C
 ddx cos x = sin x
 sin x dx = cos x + C
 ddx tan x = sec2x
 sec2x dx = tan x + C
 ddx cotan x = cosec2 x
 cosec2x dx = cotan x + C
 ddx sec x = sec x tan x
 (sec x tan x) dx = sec x + C
 ddx cosec x = cosec x cotan x
 (cosec x cotan x) dx = cosec x + C

Notice that, quite by chance, we have come up with formulas for the antiderivatives of sin x and cos x.

Question

We shall obtain some of them below, and leave others to the exercise set. (Some of them have already appeared as derivatives in Exercise Set 3...).

Example 1

Compute the following.

 (a) (3sin x 4sec2x) dx (b) cos(2x 6) dx (c) sin x cos2x dx (d) tan x dx

Solution

(a) Consulting the table above,

(3sin x 4sec2x) dx =  3sin x dx 4sec2x dx
(properties of integrals)
=  3 sin x dx 4 sec2x dx
(properties of integrals)
= 3cos x 4tan x + C (from the table)

(b) The calculation of cos(2x 6) dx requires a substitution:

 u = 2x6 dudx = 2 dx = 12 du

We now have

cos(2x 6) dx =  cos u 12 du
(using the substitution)
=  12 cos u du
(properties of integrals)
=  12 sin u + C
(from the table)
=  12 sin(2x6) + C.
(using the substitution)

(c) This one can also be done using a substitution. The trick is to substitute for the term cos x as follows:

 u = cos x dudx = sin x dx = 1sin x du

We now have

sin x cos2x dx =  (sin x)u2 1 sin x du
(using the substitution)
=  u2 du
=  u33 + C
=  cos3x3 + C.
(using the substitution)

(d) Write tan x dx as (sin x / cos x) dx, and use the same substitution as in part (c):

tan x dx =  sin xcos x dx
=  sin xu 1 sin x du
(using the substitution)
=  1u du
= ln |u| + C
= ln |cos x| + C. (using the substitution)

Before we go on...

The method in part (b) gives us the following more general formulas:

Integral Rule
General Rule
 cos x dx = sin x + C
 cos(ax+b) dx = 1a sin(ax+b) + C
 sin x dx = cos x + C
 sin(ax+b) dx = 1a cos(ax+b) + C

Not to keep you in suspense, here are the antiderivatives of all six trigonometric functions. (You will obtain them in the exercises.)

Integral Rule
General Rule
 cos x dx = sin x + C
 cos(ax+b) dx = 1a sin(ax+b) + C
 sin x dx = cos x + C
 sin(ax+b) dx = 1a cos(ax+b) + C
 tan x dx = ln |cos x| + C
 tan(ax+b) dx = 1a ln |cos(ax+b)| + C
 cotan x dx = ln |sin x| + C
 cotan(ax+b) dx = 1a ln |sin(ax+b)| + C
 sec x dx = ln |sec x + tan x| + C
 sec(ax+b) dx = 1a ln |sec(ax+b) + tan(ax+b)| + C
 cosec x dx = ln |cosec x + cotan x| + C
 cosec(ax+b) dx = 1a ln |cosec(ax+b) + cotan(ax+b)| + C

Example 2 Total Sales

Monthly sales of Ocean King Boogie Boards are given by s(t) = 1,500sin(¼(t7)/6) + 2000, where t is time in months, and t = 0 represents January 1. Estimate total sales over the four-month period beginning March 1.

Solution

Since total sales are given by the definite integral of monthly sales for the given period (t = 2 to t = 6), we have, consulting the above table,

Total Sales =  62 [1,500sin( (t 7)/6) + 2000] dt
=  1,500 ( 6 ) sin((t 7)/6) + 2000t 62
=  3,038 boogie boards.

We can also use the tabular method of integration by parts discussed in Section 7.1 of Calculus Applied to the Real World, or Section 14.1 of Finite Mathematics and Calculus Applied to the Real World.

Example 3

Evaluate the following integrals

(a) (3x22x+1)sin(x/2) dx (b) e2xcos(3x) dx

Solution

(a) Since repeated differentiation of the first term (3x22x+1) results in zero, we place it in the "D" column:

 D I + 3x22x+1 sin(x/2) ­ 6x2 2cos(x/2) + 6 4sin(x/2) ­ 0 8cos(x/2)

This gives:

(3x22x+1)sin(x/2) dx = 2(3x22x+1)cos(x/2) + 4(6x2)sin(x/2) + 48cos(x/2) + C

(b) Repeated differentiation does not annihilate either term. Actually, it doesn't matter which term we place in the "D" column, so let us place the trigonometric function there:

D
I
+
cos(3x)
e2x
­
3sin(3x)
 12 e2x
+
9cos(3x)
 14 e2x

This gives

 e2xcos(3x) dx = 12 e2xcos(3x) + 34 e2xsin(3x) 94 e2xcos(3x) dx

(We will add the constant of integration after we are done.) Notice that we have ended up with the same integral on the right as the one we started with. Calling this integral I gives:

 I = 12 e2xcos(3x) + 34 e2xsin(3x) 94 I

and we can now solve for I:

 I + 94 I = 12 e2xcos(3x) + 34 e2xsin(3x),

that is,

 134 I = 12 e2xcos(3x) + 34 e2xsin(3x),

so that

 e2xcos(3x) dx = I = 413 [ 12 e2xcos(3x) + 34 e2xsin(3x) ] + C.

 3. Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions Section 4 Exercises Trigonometric Functions Main Page "Real World" Page

We would welcome comments and suggestions for improving this resource.

Mail us at:
 Stefan Waner (matszw@hofstra.edu) Steven R. Costenoble (matsrc@hofstra.edu)

Last Updated: March, 1997